Empowering the Nation Through a Practical Scheme for Improving Mathematics in Schools

Dinesh Singh

In spite of the cautionary notes as well as the justifiable laments on the increasing divide between the rich and the poor, there is little doubt that India is on the road to economic prosperity. There are many pitfalls and lacunae on this road to well being but the right indicators seem to be falling in place. Quite naturally, any such economic boom, especially when the reasons are not fully comprehended, is bound to be accompanied by a cacophonic din of cautions and warnings. To this din, I would like to add my own note of concern. If India is to stay ahead and keep the momentum, it must have an economy that is powered by a knowledge base and the economy must be driven by competent and well trained humanpower. Thus, a well trained and capable human resource is a key component of this game. Any definition of a well trained human resource shall doubtless include quantitative and commu­nication skills as principal features. It is my contention, nay, it is my firm belief that such a requirement is to be addressed through a sound exposure to mathematics through our schools. ..

After a fair amount of thought and discussion, I have been led to the task of outlining a scheme that is to my mind as practical as it is comprehensive. In the next few pages, I shall endeavour to briefly outline this scheme with a healthy and brief dose of philosophy, coupled with a great deal of practical details.

This scheme is based on the following two firm beliefs, which are in turn, derived from years of experience:

Every child has mathematical ability.

Gandhian premise of education, The 'what you do with your hands enters your heart'.

The scheme is devised to cater to the enormous need for the provision of high quality mathematics teaching in a very holistic package for large sections of our nation.

Why is 'Mathematics Teaching' Important?

In addition to reasons outlined above, I would also like to mention that there is hardly any realm of human endeavour that has not been profoundly affected by mathematics. Given this omniscience of mathematics, it becomes imperative for the progress of any civil society to lay emphasis on the proper training of its youth, and particularly of its school children, in mathematics. Even if a child has no apparent intention of pursuing any career that relates to mathematics or uses mathematics, it still remains important for a child to have some mathematics training. In turn, mathematics shall train the child to think precisely and logically. Such training stays for the rest of one's life and enables one to enhance and empower oneself at every stage and in many ways. In general, mathematics education must be carefully developed and nurtured for the betterment of the citizens of a country and for the progress of civil society.

The Situation as it Exists Today

Unfortunately, the situation on the ground is not very reassuring; particularly for those schools that are involved in educating children who are drawn from the less privileged sections or more remote parts of society. There is not much by way of any worthwhile teaching. In any case, most of the teaching is done in a highly passive mode. It must also be borne in mind that school teachers are heavily burdened with little by way of rewards. Thus, there is no 'hands on' approach to the teaching of mathematics, which shall actively involve the child.

Immediate Inference

Given the above situation, we have to agree that there is enormous scope for improving the teaching of mathematics for schoolchildren.

Characterizing the Problem
The three problem areas that seem to characterize mathematics education in schools are:

  1. The paucity of good teachers, especially at the level of primary schools.
  2. The absence of good and meaningful textbooks/teaching materials and teaching aids that connect mathematics with the real world.
  3. The almost complete lack of a 'hands on' approach to teaching
    • The End Result
    • Most students tend to shy away from mathematics.
    • The maximum damage (unfortunately) tends to take place in the early years of a child's schooling, i.e., at the primary school level.
    • It hen becomes very difficult to convince children of the importance and beauty of mathematics. The damage is lasting in nature.
    • Eventually, children are, to put it mildly, not in the least bit enthusiastic to learn mathematics.

Remedies for the Situation

It is obvious that there are no 'magic bullet' solutions that shall remedy the above problem at once. However, I base my prescription on my personal experience.

This has been derived as much from my excursions into the field in a 'hands on' manner as from my understanding and insight as a mathematician.

Target Group

This is aimed principally at students (primary & secondary) and teachers of government schools or schools that cater to remote areas and similar schools in other parts of the country.

The scheme is expected to be implemented in a manner that shall allow easy and wide replication.

The Operating Levels

There are four levels at which the scheme shall operate:

Holistic training of teachers.

  • Long term nurturing of students. This shall be primarily based on beaming of high quality lessons in an interactive manner with the help of TV merged with technology and with the help of computers and the internet.
  • Creation of imaginative teaching materials / text books that a ro use curiosity and nurture creativity as well as appreciation.
  • Creation of a small, highly focused and well trained corps of teachers that can move from school to school for workshops and training.


A training laboratory, which shall include:
  • Faculty
  • Space
  • Equipment
  • Library
  • Location of the Laboratory
At any suitable premises that allows the scheme to function in an unhindered fashion.

Holistic Training of Teachers

The ideal teacher is one who is a gifted creator of knowledge and has talents in the realm of knowledge dissemination. Note that all the great teachers of our land in the past were also great creators of knowledge. The next best situation is one where a talented creator of knowledge is closely linked with a gifted disseminator of knowledge. This translates into holistic training of teachers.

Essentially, this means that teachers.

  • Are aided with high quality lessons beamed interactively through the use of technology (TV and internet). These lessons shall try and make the subject look natural by relating it to the environment. They shall be compre­hensive, stimulating and shall have as far as possible, a 'hands on' approach. They should be looked upon as substantial teaching aids. In fact, to a large extent these lessons shall require minimal intervention by teachers, so that if there is a paucity of good teachers in a school, the lessons can still be put to good use.
  • Are provided modules that shall have components for the training of teachers.
  • This training shall be an on-going process. Thus, significant parts of the lessons shall be oriented in such a way, that they shall induce the training of teachers without becoming disruptive or intrusive.
  • Are brought in small, compact groups for extended and intimate exposure to the working of the laboratory.
  • Will be exposed to sustained and systematic demonstrations of teaching in a classroom environment for all classes, but especially for teaching primary children.
  • Shall be trained to understand that every child has mathematical ability and shall be trained to recognize and nurture that ability.
  • Shall interact at informal levels with highly competent creators and teachers of mathematics.
  • Shall also be involved in 'hands-on' workshops that shall motivate, guide and train the teachers in several aspects of mathematics and its teaching.
  • Will be trained to inculcate the habit of thinking and making their pupils experiment and think.
  • Will be trained to identify the special needs of students, (especially for p r i m a r y c l a s s e s) a n d t o t e a c h accordingly.
  • Will be trained in preparing and presenting the right collection of problems, so that the problem solving and thinking skills of their students are enhanced.
  • Knowledge levels shall be gradually increased through workshops in a graded manner.
  • Shall be instilled with a reading habit and the ability to create a love of reading in children.
  • Shall be trained to identify good and new source material for continuous renewal of their teaching abilities.
  • Shall be exposed to the use of technology in various ways, but very gradually and in a natural fashion.
  • Shall be exposed to the history of mathematics and its utility in our everyday lives.
  • Shall be exposed to great living mathematicians and scientists throughi interviews and other means of interaction.
  • Will be exposed, wherever possible, to natural applications so that mathematics appears useful and relevant.
  • Shall be trained in creating equipment and using it to perform experiments in mathematics.
  • Shall be trained in communication skills.
  • Shall be imparted simple language skills, specially suited to mathematics. This is because, very often it has been noticed that teachers are not very adept at expressing themselves. This in turn affects the language skills/understanding of the students.
Will also be trained to use testing and examinations as a means of empowering the student to perform well and also to acquire knowledge. Care will be taken to ensure that examinations and testing are used in such a manner that they are not feared.

Long Term Nurturing of Students

The laboratory shall be involved in developing and implementing processes that shall lead to a long term nurturing of students. Of course, this will be done in a way that is significantly different from the methods recommended for teachers, because these are a differents etofvery impressionable minds whose curiosity, once aroused, may function ceaselessly. Thus, the laboratory shall:

  • Create insight for the faculty to chart the right paths for the teaching of mathematics, which means that highly self contained, beneficial, interactive and insightful lessons shall be prepared and beamed with the help of technology into every school, neighbourhood and eventually to every home.
  • Shall be a continuous monitoring station of the progress and feedback, to enable it to continually modify the lessons.
  • These students shall range from the primary classes to the senior secondary and they will be monitored along several parameters and over a period of several years for the benefits that will have been rendered.
  • The students shall be encouraged to run experiments and to relate the subject to their environment. Here, the trained teachers shall play a role.
  • Various tools and teaching aids (new and old) shall be used for the teaching of mathematics until some insight begins to emerge.
  • The classes that shall be run for the students in the laboratory (and even in other places) shall, with the help of technology, be transmitted by TV and even captured on CD's with voice and animation.
  • Simulation tools shall be used as teaching aids so that the students can grasp concepts easily and develop insight through applications, wherever possible.

Creation of Teaching Materials

Several teaching materials shall be created in various ways. First and foremost, a complete set of interactive lessons for each standard (I-XII) shall be produced and beamed with the help of technology. Some good textbooks are bound to be written. These textbooks shall be holistic in their approach and shall teach the subject in a gentle and natural manner. The teacher and the student alike shall be able to relate to the subject and relate it with their environment. They will be encouraged to create and run experiments so that when they do things with their own hands, they shall be able to gather insight and shall retain the knowledge. The laboratory shall also create teaching aids in various ways. These aids will take the form of equipment for experiments both on the real plane and on the virtual plane. One of the best ways of creating insight and knowledge is by the way of simulations. Thus, the laboratory shall also create several simulations for all levels of classes and for the use of teachers and students alike. It must be mentioned here that the laboratory shall also create, with the help of the recent and inexpensive advances in technology, the actual classroom lesson to be beamed via TV and/or the internet.

These 'TV lessons' shall be encapsulated within a very holistic package that shall include such offerings as:

  • Counselling for parents, teachers and students
  • The need, importance and use of mathematics in society
  • History of mathematics and science
  • Biographies of distinguished scientists
  • Interviews and discussions with great mathematicians and educators
  • Imparting communication skills
  • Career counselling
  • Quizzes and contests
  • A Helpline
It is hoped that the same can be captured on CD's with voice and animation. These CD's can then also be used as teaching aids in those schools, neighbourhoods and homes where some very basic computers are available.

Creation of a Small Corps of Teachers that shall Move from School to School

Given all of the above, one of the easily achieved objectives of the programme shall be to create a very dedicated, well-trained, talented and small corps of teachers from amongst graduating college students and some carefully chosen full time school teachers. This corps shall be deployed in a phased manner from school to school to help implement the teaching methodologies that will have developed at the laboratory.

Implementation of the Above Programme in Terms of Faculty and Budget

The above programme can only be implemented if, as mentioned at the very beginning, a gifted creator of knowledge who is also a talented teacher heads this programme. This has to be a first-rate mathematician who has the dedication and experience to head the implementation of the programme. This mathematician must ever remain a creator, to keep skills and insight intact. However, a part of his/her time must be devoted entirely to this programme. This mathematician must be provided with all the necessary support in terms of resources and infrastructure. This will help create a team and set up the entire laboratory. Given the enormity of the task, the entire budget shall not be too unreasonable. It shall be used for supporting a full time chair for this mathematician and for some of the faculty that will get appointed. Some of the heads shall be: Full time chair for a distinguished mathe­matician; A few full time chairs for talented and experienced faculty; stipends /salary for assistants chosen from school teachers and college students; grants for travel and for visitors; grants for library and for various equipment and software as well as hardware; grants for the actual physical infrastructure of the laboratory; grants for the holding of workshops; grants for funding the stay of school teachers and for their training. All this shall be done under the aegis of the Mathematical Sciences Foundation.

Evaluation and Testing: Empowering the Student

It is an inviolable axiom with us that evaluation and testing should be used primarily for the empowerment of the student. This empowerment translates into:
  • development of insight and creativity
  • better knowledge
  • enjoyment from learning

Any process of evaluation is only as good as the person who devises and/or implements it. Given this premise, the limitations inherent in any evaluation mechanism must be recognized. It will be pertinent to mention here that at the beginning of the last century, one of the greatest mathe­maticians of all times, Henri Poincare, took the Binet tests (at the height of his creative powers) and was declared an imbecile!

Thus, teachers must be trained and taught:

  • To understand the pitfalls of testing and evaluation beyond a point.
  • To use evaluation as a gentle means of creating curiosity in the mind of the student about the subject and about his/her understanding of the subject.
  • Never to use the testing procedures as a means of humiliating the learner.
  • Comparisons must be avoided between any two students; all comparisons, for whatever purposes, must be kept as confidential as possible.
  • The examples of Ramanujan and Einstein must be borne in mind to prevent the labeling of students in terms of abilities.
It will be pertinent to recall the style of learning as often portrayed in the Upanishads, where the teacher leads the student/disciple through a gentle series of questions in a logical sequence. This style actually makes the questioning (read testing) a process of self-evaluation for the student and culminates in a final insight where a significant amount of answering has been done by the student and the teacher has really only provided the insight when the student's mind was ripe through the questioning.

So let us recognize that

  • The delivery mechanism of teaching must be of a high quality before any meaningful testing/evaluation can be done.
  • Questioning/testing cannot be seen as an isolated part of teaching.
  • It is an integral part of teaching and complements as well as supplements the creation of insight and of curiosity /thirst/hunger for knowledge.
  • The testing/evaluation must enhance and reinforce the teaching, create greater curiosity and lead to further learning.
  • The process must be free of stress and strain for the teacher and the student.

Some Practical Steps

Having mentioned all the philosophical aspects of the processes of testing and evaluation, the moot point that remains is: how does one translate this into a practical methodology?

First, an assumption: Let us assume that the delivery mechanism (teaching methodology) has been of a certain minimum required standard that incorporates the good practices of teaching mentioned elsewhere in this document.

Then, the following practical steps are likely to spell out our methodology:

The teacher must build simple but insightful oral questions into the lesson at critical steps. Such questions shall be implanted at the right places in the offerings that shall be prepared in the laboratory and be offered only via a 'teacher'.

Each question must make the student pause and think.

Written and oral questions must be framed in easy and clear terms. Applications of principles must be built into questions wherever possible, but these questions must not be seen as artificial or unreal applications as is often the case.

The class must be broken up into smaller and reasonably homogenous groups that can be posed specific questions, both written and oral. The teacher must encourage the students to answer after collective reflection.

The importance of oral testing and answering in which the whole class participates cannot be over emphasized. At the same time, the class must be taught to use language and commun­ication skills effectively.

Lessons must be broken up into key parts and the importance of each part must be demonstrated by preparing a series of questions and experiments related to the questions that will highlight the use of the key principle /part of the lesson in answering the questions.

Written testing and evaluation should be done at two levels: For small groups that answer collectively and for individual children. and large, two different childrenBy should receive different sets of questions (in terms of different words/terms) that highlight the same principle/idea/lesson under discussion and are at the same level.

  • Each child must use the questions/tests /evaluation procedures for competing primarily against himself/herself. There is great advantage in repeating the same tests for a child two or even three times. This, most of the time, leads to great learning. Recall that hindsight gives 20­20 vision.
  • There must be a proper one-to-one mapping between the questions and the key parts of the lesson being tested.
  • The teacher will be taught to identify clearly which questions emphasize an idea, which emphasize rote learning and which lead to further thinking on the part of the child. All three kinds of questions have their own importance and there must be a certain balance, depending on the needs of each individual/class.
  • The teacher will also be taught to be clear in broad terms about the levels of difficulty of each of the three groups of questions mentioned above.
  • The testing shall recognize that a certain amount of practice and rote learning is absolutely essential, but this must be brought about in a gradual manner and the child must not be overwhelmed by it.
Objec t i v e t e s t i n g , s h o r t a n s w e r questions and rearranging jumbled groups of sentences in a logical sequence shall also be accorded their due importance.

Overcoming Impediments in the Impleme­ntation of the Above Steps

It is obvious that there are several impediments to implementing the above steps.

The two most obvious ones are:

  • The large class sizes
  • The poor quality of teaching
However, what we would like to emphasize here is that there seems to be a way to ensure that a certain minimum standard of teaching and learning can be achieved, which is far higher than what exists.

The Large Class Size Problem

I think that one of the major problems that our school teachers face today is the fact that class sizes are enormously large. The ideal situation is to have a much smaller student-teacher ratio than the one that exists. However, this is not a problem that can be wished away, nor will it be remedied for a long time. Yet, there are ways and means in which the situation can be rectified to a large extent.

The solution that we suggest relies on the use of technology. A very enlightened teacher can easily deconstruct a lesson into key parts and ideas and map onto these parts, questions across several parameters. This is easy to do when implemented on a computer. A great deal of interactivity and personalization can also be put into the computer. Thus, it becomes easy for any other teacher to see the essential principles that are vital to a lesson. This teacher then accordingly produces a whole set of different question papers with various characteristics highlighting different important aspects of the lesson according to the needs of the class at the individual level and at the collective level. Simple interactive tools also help the teacher to produce several different questions highlighting the same idea or principle. The process of evaluation and grading also becomes very easy for the teacher with the use of information technology. The teacher can quickly and easily assess the standing of the individual pupil in percentile terms and even against the pupil's own performances.

Several studies already exist that have demonstrated the effectiveness of such technologies and methods. At the proposed laboratory, we wish to implement our own version of these ideas and if needed, merge t h e m w i t h s o m e t r i e d a n d u s e f u l technology/method.

The Poor Quality of Teaching

We have already tackled the problem of the poor quality of teaching at a different place in our proposal.

It is imperative that the kind of work that we wish to do should be executed in a knowledge environment with a practical outlook. This is precisely the case at the Mathematical Sciences Foundation. Here, I have at my disposal the committed expertise o f a d e d i c a t e d b a n d o f t a l e n t e d mathematicians, who are willing to put in time for the kind of activities that I have proposed. We also have a huge bank of bright and motivated undergraduates who shall be an immense help at various levels.

The other point that I wish to make is that there is enormous technological expertise in such matters that already exists here. The use of technology to help free the teacher from mundane matters of teaching and for gaining insight into the level for individual students/for large classes/for across the board evaluation, is immensely beneficial.

Implementing the Above Ideas: A Practical Road Map


  • create and implement a practical
  • To roadmap to implement the above ideas.
  • To raise the level of awareness and involvement of school teachers, parents, school children and society.
  • To create benchmarks and standards that shall allow the practical impleme­ntation of the plan to stay uniform over large periods of time and extensive geographies; and to overcome problems in the delivery systems at the last mile end.
  • By-Products Improvement in the quality of teaching materials such as books, teaching aids and recorded lessons, as well as other useful related offerings like counselling, history etc.
  • More effective language and communi­cation skills for teachers and students.
  • Enjoyment and insight into mathematics in a holistic fashion.
  • Easy to replicate for different geo­graphies and disciplines.
  • Other schools and institutions can take advantage of the plan.

Time Phase

The plan shall be implemented over a 12­year time period and shall require a 3-year preparation cum honing period. Thus, at the end of 15 years, there will be a comprehensive package that will have demonstrated on a large scale basis, a significantly better methodology (than the existing ones) for the teaching and learning of mathematics.

Target Group

This project is primarily meant for school teachers and children of all schools in various parts of the country. However, benefits shall accrue to other segments of society.

A Special Word about the Girl Child and Mathematics

Educators the world over are becoming increasingly aware of the special attention that must be paid to the needs of the girl child in many situations related to education. In India , this aspect acquires many dimensions and hues. There are obvious cultural needs and impediments. In addition, regular education beyond a certain age is not accessible to the girl child in large parts of our land. There is no special identifiable methodology that seems to have been developed, largely because the problem itself has not been very well defined. Thus, the problem becomes all the more difficult when it comes to the needs of mathematics education for the girl child. I have had some experience in this and am quite happy to report that after the initial hesitation, seemingly caused by cultural/social conditioning; girls in most situations have been as receptive and creative as boys. This is especially true when there are classes that comprise mostly girls. Of course, there seems to be some initial hesitation, which wears out after a while, and then the girls seem to take the same amount of interest and have the same kind of abilities and skills. These are of course just some preliminary findings.

The concrete steps that need to be taken in this regard are:

  • Consciously present role models for the girl child.
  • Encourage the girl child without being patronizing.
  • Educate the parents of all children and create better awareness in the social milieu of the girl child.
  • Consciously create lessons/offerings that seem to bring in topics and ideas that would be of as much interest to girls as to boys.
  • Expose children to many highly successful women who have used/are using mathematics in their professions or elsewhere to great advantage.
  • Get girl students who have demon­strated skills and ability to take part as teachers of sorts in the teaching of the lessons via the use of technology, so that girls and boys alike shall start accepting the naturalness of the abilities of girls of their own ages.
  • Keep special help lines that shall be equipped to handle in a professional manner, the needs, aspirations and problems of the girl child.
  • Undertake as many surveys as possible of the situation in different regions where lessons are being planned to be offered, to enable the lessons to be adapted to the needs of the girl child of that region.
  • Methodology and Schedule for the 15 Year Programme
  • A first rate team comprising five tiers of mathematicians and teachers shall be assembled at the beginning of the first year.

The Five Tier Structure From the Top Downwards :

  1. One or two very distinguished and committed mathematicians who are creative as researchers/teacher-thinkers, with a very practical and established track record. These mathematicians shall be hired on a full time basis and they shall devote at least a third of their time to guiding the effort at all levels.
  2. Fi ve very g oo d a nd commi tted mathematicians who have a proven track record as mathematicians and as educators at the school level. These mathematicians shall also devote at least a third of their time to guiding the effort at all levels.
  3. Ten lecturers who are coming in at knowledge level with a great deal of practical insight. They shall be working full time.
  4. Five fresh, talented, post-graduates (i.e. those who have M.A./M.Sc./M.Phil. degrees) in mathematics. These five shall be devoting their entire time to help in the designing and implementation of the project
  5. Twenty extremely bright and commi­tted undergraduates. These twenty shall work for fixed hours each week. They may vary from year to year. They shall help in the implementation of the design and in issues related to preparation of the teaching material. They will work directly under the supervision of the mathematicians at level 1 and 2.

In Addition:

In addition to the above five tier structure, there shall also be the need to engage from time to time, consultants on issues related to education and transmission technology.

The following milestones shall have been achieved at the end of first year:

  • The team shall have been assembled.
  • The technology requirements shall have been identified.
  • The lesson plans/teaching meth­odologies shall have been discussed and prepared.
  • The trial delivery of the first lessons shall have been conducted.

A Word about Technology: Its Nature and Need

It must be emphasized that there is a tendency on the part of some to bring in, or emphasize the need of technology without any proper justification. However, in our situation, we have identified certain kinds of technology that are imperative for the success of the plan.

There are several advantages of technology:

Interactivity and large areas can be covered with material of a very good quality. The ingredients of this material have been outlined above but are reproduced again over here. These TV/Computer/Internet 'lessons' shall be encapsulated within a very holistic package that shall include such offerings as:

  • Counselling for parents, teachers and students
  • The need, importance and use of mathematics in society
  • History of mathematics and science
  • Biographies of distinguished scientists
  • Interviews and discussions with great mathematicians and educators
  • Imparting communication skills
  • Career counselling
  • A helpline

This is done in an interactive way so that in addition to the text on the blackboard, the voice of the teacher; as well as the image of the teacher is also transmitted as and when required. The te c h no log y a l l o w s t h e st u d en ts to simultaneously view the lesson in all schools or anywhere else, as if in a classroom environment. In addition, with the provision of a camera at suitable times and places, students can be seen and heard by the teacher in the transmission room as and when required.

The technology allows the use of the PC to transmit any part of a lesson, such as some pre-written text/animation/images etc. It allows the entire lesson to be stored on an inexpensive CD for future viewing.

In addition to the above-mentioned technology, I would like to emphasize that there are simple ways of creating intelligent testing procedures (designed to improve learning), which require the power of the computer. This use of technology is proving highly successful and productive. Such gainful use of technology shall be actively encouraged.

Schedule from Year 2 to Year 12

Each year, the entire teaching material, together with all support material, shall be created for a given standard starting from Standard I onwards. At the end of the twelfth year, the material for the entire school system is expected to have been created.

Quality of the Material

The quality of the material shall be of a high standard from several points of view. It shall conform to the requirements of the student and teacher alike in the sense that it shall be easy to use, shall generate interest and insight. It shall have a great deal of supplementary support material that is not found in regular classroom teaching. It shall lead to teacher training in a natural manner. 2. Two principal reasons why not much However, all experiments and simulations has been achieved in our country are: etc. shall be made available from the point of view of the student being able to relate the idea to his/her immediate environment. Testing shall be in a personalized mode to Not enough effort by good mathe­maticians to create authentic teaching material and methodologies at the

school level. the extent possible and shall try and ensure We have always been in a hurry to that the student competes primarily against himself/herself. Testing shall also be used create material and methodologies. significantly for enhancing the learning of 3. Hence, if any thing significant and of the student. lasting value is to be achieved, then we

must be ready for a long haul; we must Conclusion also have enormous patience.

I would like to emphasize the following: 4. No compromises must be made in terms

  1. Education, and in particular Mathe­matics education, is a serious and difficult business.
  2. Two principal reasons why not much has been achieved in our country are:
    • Not enough effort by good mathematicians to create authentic teaching material and methodologies at the school level.
    • We have always been in a hurry to create material and methodologies.
  3. Hence, if any thing significant and of lasting value is to be achieved, then we must be ready for a long haul; we must also have enormous patience.
  4. No compromises must be made in terms of quality, and this means first and foremost, no compromises on the recruitment of human resources.